Policing The Nigerian Federation: Integrating Community Policing In Nigerian Security Architecture

Keynote Address Delivered by Dr Solomon E. Arase (IGP, Rtd)* at a Lecture on the Theme – ‘Policing The Nigerian Federation: Integrating Community Policing In Nigerian Security Architecture’  Organised by the National Institute of Policy and Strategic Studies, Kuru-Jos on 30th November, 2017

 

Introduction

Police organizations in democratic societies are charged with the responsibilities of promoting human rights, rule of law, security and development through law enforcement and order maintenance. The context in which police operate determines the extent to which they are able to discharge these responsibilities. The context referred to here, fundamentally rests on the degree of community acceptance and partnership with the police. This is because police legitimacy draws from public consent and trust, and lack of effective partnership between the police and the public can only sustain ineffective policing and engender insecurity within the community.

Unfortunately, far more beyond the broad challenges of abuses relating to misapplication of police powers as well as ethical misconducts, the negative perception of police today and the empirically-proven less than optimal professional service delivery profile of the extended policing family in Nigeria have been linked to their failure to develop and implement frameworks that will constantly engage, feel, and respect the pulse of the community they serve in the discharge of their policing functions. Community policing model serves to address these gaps in relation to internal security management and community safety.

It is against this background, therefore, that I wish to commend the management of the National Institute of Strategic Studies, Jos, for their foresight in adopting Community Policing as the central theme for their upcoming academic session. Aside drawing national attention to the imperative of community partnership in modern internal security management, the focus on the Model by the Institute holds the potentials of galvanizing policy makers, strategic political leaders and law enforcement leaderships into evolving pathways towards integrating the practice into their functions. This Keynote Address, consequently, is designed to provide a broad outlook on Community Policing with a view to triggering the intellectual process being driven by NIPSS on the field.

 

Imperative of Police-Public Trust and Partnership

The imperative of partnership between the police and the public was underscored by the Principle of Law Enforcement articulated by Robert Peel, the pioneer Chief of London Metropolitan Police in 1829. Of the nine statements advanced in the Principles, five directly emphasized the importance of public consent, trust, and collaboration[1]. Principle two, for instance, states that ‘the ability of the police to perform their duties is dependent upon public approval of police existence, actions, behavior and the ability of the police to secure and maintain public respect’, while principle three highlights the imperative of the police to of necessity, secure the willing cooperation of the public in voluntary observance of the law to be able to secure and maintain public respect. Principle four notes that the degree of cooperation of the public that can be secured diminishes, proportionately, to the necessity for the use of physical force and compulsion in achieving police objectives. This is in reference to police conducts that could negatively impact on the legitimacy of the police in the community.

Principle five highlights strategies that could be engaged to strengthen the bond between the police and the community. It observes that the police seek and preserve public favor, not by catering to public opinion, but by constantly demonstrating absolutely impartial service to the law, in complete independence of policy, and without regard to the justice or injustice of the substance of individual laws; by ready offering of individual service and friendship to all members of society without regard to their race or social standing, by ready exercise of courtesy and friendly good humour; and by ready offering of individual sacrifice in protecting and preserving life. Principle seven emphatically states that the police at all times should maintain a relationship with the public that gives reality to the historic tradition that the police are the public and the public are the police; the police are the only members of the public who are paid to give full-time attention to duties which are incumbent on every citizen in the intent of the community welfare.

In further underscoring the strategic importance of police legitimacy and community partnership in modern policing, the Task Force on 21st Century Policing initiative of the government of United States notes that trust between law enforcement agencies and the people they protect is key to the stability of communities, the integrity of the criminal justice system, and safe and effective policing service delivery. The Task Force also notes in its Final Report that building trust and nurturing legitimacy on both sides of the police/citizen divide is the foundational principle underlying the nature of relations between law enforcement agencies and the communities they serve and that the public confers legitimacy only on those whom they believe are acting in procedurally just ways[2]. In addition, law enforcement actors cannot build community trust if they are seen or perceived as an occupying or hostile Force coming in from outside or evolving from within the community to impose control on the community without the policed populace’s consent and input. This observation is germane to the policing realities in Nigeria.

 

Community Policing in Nigeria: Critical Issues

That community policing which demands effective police-public partnership and trust in crime prevention is the best and most potent form of policing has never been in doubt. Even among police personnel themselves, a research carried out between March 2001 and December 2003 by the Centre for Law Enforcement Education in Nigeria (CLEEN Foundation) in partnership with the NPF in fourteen states selected from the six geopolitical zones of Nigeria, discovered that if community policing strategy is adopted, it could assist to eradicate most of the challenges attributed to the traditional reactive police culture[3].

While there is no debate on the efficacy of community policing model in internal security management, there are debates on the origin of the practice with most literature crediting its evolution to the United Kingdom in 1929. I tend to disagree with this assertion. Community Policing had been in practice in our local communities in Nigeria long before colonialism and we must take a fair share of national credit in this regard.

In a July, 2015 publication entitled ‘Rest in Pieces, Police Torture and Deaths in Nigeria’, the Human Rights Watch asserts that prior to the onset of colonization by the British in 1861, traditional African policing methods were rooted in the community and closely interlinked with social and religious structures. The enforcement of traditional customs and beliefs was carried out by community structures such as age grades (formal organizations whose membership is based on pre-determined age range), secret societies or vocational guilds (for example, of hunters, farmers or fishermen). Through these diffuse systems of crime control, law and order was maintained, largely without the use of violence[4]. Similarly, Osaro Ollorwi in a study entitled ‘Community Policing and Crime Control in Pre-Colonial Eleme, Issues and Perspectives’ highlights how Secret societies, traditional religion and supernatural devices were adopted by the Elemes in South South Nigeria as community policing and social control instruments in pre-colonial era[5].

Furthermore, in a study titled ‘Community Policing in the Traditional Igbo Society: A Model for Preventing Crime in the Contemporary Nigerian Society’, Ernest Toochi Aniche observes that community policing is neither foreign nor novel to Africa as long before colonialism, the traditional Igbo society of the now south-eastern Nigeria had devised a community-oriented means of policing its communities and curbing or preventing crime using primarily the age grade system and masquerade secret society[6]. Since all adult male citizens belong to both the age grade and masquerade society, the import of this traditional security architecture was that the task of policing was that of the entire society and policing functions were undertaken in a clearly structured, communal system that was based on the values, input and tasking system of the local communities.

In addition, community-based policing and social control architecture which was woven round the traditional institutions and customs were visible among the Yorubas in the South West and the Hausas in the Northern part of Nigeria. These traditional, community policing practices, varied as they were in orientation and implementation, were known to share the modern principles associated with community policing as being advanced by the Western world just as they were very effective in enabling the pre-colonial Nigeria societies in not just fighting crime but also in preventing crime.

In essence, ladies and gentlemen, as we make to advance the concept of community policing in our drive to perfect our internal security architecture, we should not be under the faulty perception that we are advocating a novel or alien crime control practice, neither should we submit to the perspective that community policing is a Western policing system, practice or culture that is being foisted on us. In contrast, it is my submission that community policing is part of our culture, our evolution as a nation and our way of life until it was disrupted by colonialism and further dislocated by the Constitution which institutionalised central policing framework and effectively detached or alienated the people from their police, thereby, weakening the practice of community policing as inherited from our forefathers across all cultures and ethnic groups in Nigeria. What we are pushing for, therefore, is that we go back to the basics by re-embracing, modifying, adapting and readopting our traditional community policing model to meet the dynamics of crime and modern dictates.

Just like in Nigeria and other African communities, Policing in pre-industrial Europe had also been a local community affair with maintenance of order and crime control being fulfilled by collective tasks which were sometimes, undertaken through voluntary community service on a rotating basis among local community actors[7]. This was guided by the practice of ‘scrutiny, hue and cry, and posse’. Much as the evolution of industrialisation with attendant modernisation threatened the basics of localised policing, the core virtues still remain evident and were protected jealously. Hence, even at this early stage of modernisation in Europe, the basic weapon that the citizens still engaged in defending their security and combat danger ‘was their intense sociability – a complex of human relations and institutions predicated on collective, local, informal and voluntary reactions to disorder and law breaking’[8].

The import of this comparative historical sojourn is not just to appreciate the dynamics of community policing, but to highlight the fact that as a concept and by origin, policing has always been a communal duty, and a common denominator among countries with the best Police Forces across the world is the community oriented and citizens –driven policing framework they have emplaced and retained.  In essence, community policing entails building community trust; engagement of the diverse policed community in identifying and prioritizing threats, and developing crime control and community safety strategies; and partnering to implement and re-evaluate the strategies. In essence, community policing is built on trust – mutual trust between the police and the community; engagement – socialisation between the police and the community towards threats assessment; and partnership between the community and the police towards attaining the common objective of community safety. Much as these constitute the basic ingredients of community policing, it needs be emphasised that there is no universal model of the practice that is applicable in all policing climes.

The approach, therefore, is to recognise the basic principles while adapting and adopting the variations to suit the peculiar policing environment of a nation. In essence, community policing practice must be sensitive and adaptable to the peculiar historical, cultural, economic, and crime realities of the policed community. By implication, even within a country, variations of the mode of implementation may be vital to effective implementation and desired crime control outcomes. This is even more critical in a nation as Nigeria with varied cultural and communal values and varied geo-located threats.

Community Policing in Practice

It might be helpful to draw inferences from citizens-driven policing models in other parts of the world that have experienced security challenges peculiar to ours in order to drive home the essence and effect of the practice as a potent internal security management model. In Kenya, faced with the challenge of cattle rustling, two villages formed a joint security system. They selected a ‘Commandant’ and an Assistant, and hired five police reservists. Some citizens donated vehicles and other kits while the communities contributed to pay them little stipends. The Police reservists worked alongside Rangers employed by large scale Ranchers to repel cattle raiding, while the Kenya Police established a radio connection with the reservists and daily monitored and regulated their activities. Following these moves, cattle rustling declined remarkably in the affected localities[9].

In South Sudan, a Market Association in Yei arranged with the Police that when any trader is arrested for any compoundable crime, he or she is handed over to the Association. The Market Association resolves the issue and report their resolution to the Police. This arrangement has been successful in preventing escalation of relatively low-level disputes thereby reducing the burden on the Police and the Criminal Justice System. In Uganda, another work-based organization, the Taxi Drivers Association has an agreement with the Police that allows the association to police taxi and bus parks in respect of traffic offences, pickpockets, and other disputes between drivers and passengers, while exchanging criminal intelligence with the Police. The Police, on their part, offer the association’s members training in crime control and prevention[10].

In Sierra Leone, some communities in the South have established mechanisms for the peaceful resolution of conflicts. The Bo Peace and Reconciliation Movement (BPRM) is a coalition of 11 community groups working on peace building, reconciliation and crime prevention in the Bo District in partnership with the local police. Its twenty Local Peace Monitors have resolved many conflicts such as family matters, fighting, land cases and leadership issues. They handled 255 cases in 2014 and their work has reduced communal conflict and litigation in the local courts, and helped many ex-combatants reintegrate into the communities. BPRM’s success has earned it the commendation of the Provincial Administration in Bo. Similar citizens-driven crime management arrangements exist in Afghanistan, Ethiopia, Rwanda and Liberia, while a Corporate Sector-driven model operates in South Africa[11].

Back home in Nigeria, historically, our revered traditional institutions are known to be strong social control actors who have been deploying their grassroots reach and time-tested cultural frameworks for information collection and dissemination, crime detection, and dispute resolution at community level. Their strong knowledge of history, culture, norms and customary practices as well as their reverence by their subjects are vital assets that could be tapped into to engender community – driven policing and address local and national crime and security challenges. Aside this, there is an ingenuous model of community-driven crime management initiative that is noticeable in Plateau State. At the peak of the Jos crises, a community security arrangement in which Christians were engaged to secure their Muslim brothers and sisters during Juma’at Prayers and Muslim brothers providing security for Christian brethren on Sunday Church services was emplaced in partnership with the local police. In presenting a united inter-faith and inter-ethnic front to confront a common enemy, this innovative community policing security model became potent in the management of the security challenges on the Plateau.

Even more significant is the Citizens-driven internal security model in the North-East geo-political Zone of Nigeria where youths with the support of different components of the local community, volunteered to complement the State by forming themselves into Vigilante and Community Defence Bodies to defend their communities against terror attacks. The strength of the ‘Civilian JTF’ as they are popularly called, lies not in the sophistication of their firearms, training or pecuniary benefits, but in their exceptional courage, exemplary passion for their communities, and advantage of full understanding of the topography of their communities.  The ‘Civilian JTF’ also draw strength from their knowledge of the local population such that they can easily identify and isolate strangers and locals linked to terrorism and other crimes. Furthermore, they have ability to generate quality criminal intelligence that is vital to crime management and the war on terrorism. Fighting arm-in-arm with the Military and complementing the anti-crime functions of the local Police, these non-state policing actors have proven to be vital assets whose names will be written in gold when the counterterrorism story of this nation will be documented.

Nigeria Police and Community Trust: Militating Factors:

Trust is central to the effective implementation of community policing model in every community. Within the Nigerian Policing space, however, a number of factors militate against the cultivation of community trust in the Police Force. As espoused by Robert Peel and the Task Force on 21st Century Policing, it is also recognised within the Nigerian Policing space that police efficiency is dependent on citizens’ approval of their existence, actions and behaviour. Unfortunately, one of the problems encountered by the police in Nigeria since British colonial rulers established the first police force in 1861 in Lagos is the lack of approval of police existence, actions and behaviours by significant sectors of the society. In essence, the police are not trusted neither is there a strong partnership between the citizens and the police in Nigeria. Several factors explain this state of affairs and they can can be discussed under Historical, policing structure/principles, Legal, Institutional, The Law Enforcement Illiteracy Gap and Political/Policy factors.

Historical Factors – Researchers on policing in Nigeria have argued that the circumstance in which the police emerged in the country constituted the foundation of distrust between the police and the community. The argument is that the origin of the the Nigeria Police is linked to the unpalatable history of colonial subjugation of the local communities in the country. The Police, according to Tamuno[12] and Alemika[13] was introduced to the Nigerian territories that were occupied by the colonial rulers to promote their interests of exploiting and oppressing the indigenous peoples. Chukwuma[14], also notes that the primary purpose of the police during this time was to advance the economic and political agenda of the colonizers. This was achieved by deploying the police in early times in the brutal subjugation of communities and the suppression of resistance to colonial rule.

The use of violence and repression from the beginning of the colonial era, marked a dislocation in the relationship between the police and local communities, which has characterized law enforcement practices in Nigeria ever since. Against this historical background of its evolution, the Nigeria Police is not generally seen as a product of the consent of citizens of Nigeria, accepted as reflective of their values and expectations, or embraced as a friendly Force with the right orientation to protect their interests.

Policing Structure and Principles – The Nigeria Police is a national police agency established under Sec. 214 of the Constitution for the Nigerian Federation. The Constitution provides that there shall not be any other police Force for the country aside the Nigeria Police Force. Scholars and public analysts have argued that granted our ethno-cultural diversities, the principle that underlie the existence and operation of the Police in Nigeria is insensitive to the diversities within the country and as such, does not engender the effective implementation of community policing model. Under this policing framework, it is argued that the locals naturally find it difficult to relate with and build trust in such a police unit which they assume is alien to them. Conversely, the police officer may struggle to understand the language of the locals, integrate with them or appreciate their sensitivities in contrast to the principles of community policing and makes police-community integration unachievable, it is posited. Indeed, advocates of State Police often build their arguments on this line of thought. It is noteworthy also that the Report of the 21st Century Policing Task Force reflected on this scenario as it relates to the United States policing space.

Others authorities have, however, argued that the structure of policing does not constitute an impediment, rather, the orientation and principle that drive policing in the country are the main impediments as such are not community policing centred. Hence, most police officers are not schooled or grounded on the job on the principles and practice of community policing as a law enforcement model. This School of Thought argues that Community Policing is not about who the police actors are within a local community, but about how such police detachments understand their functions, perform their functions, understand their community and integrate the community they police into the broad strategies engaged in the discharge of their functions. They submit that if the principles and practice of Community Policing are fully integrated into the Police Institution and their operations, and all police officers are socialised into the theory and practice of community policing right at Police training institutions and on the job, any police manager can implement the tenets within any environment with excellent community safety outcome.

Whatever line of the intellectual debate one tilts towards, what is not debatable is the reality that community policing is driven by trust between the local police and the community, and the conduct of the local police determines the extent and strength of such trust. By implication, it is possible that a police detachment populated by officers and men drawn from within the policed locality may not necessarily retain the trust of the community nor secure their willing partnership in crime control functions if such personnel conduct themselves in unprofessional manner towards the community members. Conversely, a local police detachment that is populated by officers and men deployed from other parts of the country, may retain the trust and willing partnership of the policed community if the police personnel demonstrate professionalism and manifest deep knowledge of the principles and practice of community policing within the policed community in the discharge of their Mandate.

This raises questions on the orientation and depth of professional knowledge of police personnel in relation to galvanising their publics as a strategic approach to their public safety and crime management functions. Rather than debating the origin question in terms of deployment of police personnel within the context of community policing, therefore, the debate is best if it is centred on ways of enhancing the professional capacity and deep knowledge gap that is evident in the Nigeria Police as currently evidenced in the area of strategic police management.

Legal Factors – The duty of the Police is to enforce the law. Unfortunately, some of these laws as well as the legal powers extended to the police towards enforcing such laws may be inimical to effective police-community relationship to the extent that they may not be laws that are favourable to the citizens. For instance, in the event of civil protests, the law provides that police should respond in a manner that will prevent breakdown in law and order or threat to public peace. This, at times may warrant the deployment of tactics or weaponry which will pitch the police against the citizens and widen the police-community gap.

Beyond this, as the ‘specialist repositories for state’s monopolisation of legitimate force’ which also legally enjoys other powers including power of criminal prosecution, arrest with or without warrant, stop and search, and power to detain (which manifests in custodial violence), studies have shown that there is a correlation between the nature of police power, how it is exercised, and miscarriages of justice which often engender public distrust of the Police[15].

Institutional Factors – This deals with the lack of required resources and skills to ensure the efficiency of the police. Efficiency is a critical factor in developing and sustaining confidence in the police.  Sources of inefficiency by the Nigeria Police Force include huge gap between required and provided human and non-human resources made available to the police; management and operational incompetency; poor remuneration and conditions of service; misconduct by some officers, and unrelenting criticisms of the police by the public which demoralise the police and creates what Chan defines as the ‘siege mentality’ or the ‘we and them’ disposition of the police towards the citizen. Associated with these is the public perception of corruption within the police system[16].

The Law Enforcement literacy Gap – Viewed from the police lenses and from practical experience, there is a widespread knowledge gap of the law and policing in Nigeria. Many citizens do not understand the law and the functions and powers of the police and crime control processes. Therefore, enforcement of certain laws is considered an unacceptable action on the part of the police. Further, many citizens expect the police to act on any complaints brought to the Force with dispatch, irrespective of the nature of the allegations, some of which do not constitute breach of criminal law. When police decline, such persons accused police of corruption or ineffectiveness and retain such perception in their relationship with the police.

Political/Policy Factor – A major factor that sustains the trust gap between the police and the public is the inability of the country to introduce required reforms for the reorientation of the inherited police forces to serve the interests of the generality of the citizens. In consequence, there is no national policy framework defining the principles of policing and pathways to strengthening public trust and partnership between the police and the citizens 57 years after independence and in the 87 years’ history of Nigeria Police Force as presently constituted.

 

Conclusion:

Community Policing is, historically, the rock upon which policing and internal security management rests. However, to give a sustainable effect to the Model within the Nigerian security space, there is the need to evolve a National Internal Security Policy that will recognise and adopt Community Policing as the internal security model of the country. The Policy framework will define pathways for the attainment of the community policing initiative, define specific roles of all strategic community actors as well as the law enforcement community component and also clearly define the interrelationships and obligations of each of the actors. In addition, the Policy should ensure the integration of community policing modules into the training curricula of the police and other law enforcement agencies while evolving structures to support implementation.

Finally, to the extent that trust is vital to seamless police-community partnership the Federal Government needs to address issues inhibiting trust between the police and their publics, for until those factors that accentuate distrust between the police and the community are addressed through sets of conscious initiatives, the practice of community policing in Nigeria as an internal security management model may remain a mirage.

I thank you for your attention.

 

Dr Solomon E. Arase is a former Inspector-General of Police of the Nigeria Police Force, a lawyer, Fellow of National Defense College, former National Legal Adviser of the National Defense College Alumni Association of Nigeria, Principal Partner of Solomon Arase & Associates and MD/CEO of Solar Security & Consult.

 

Bibliography

Alemika, E.E.O., (1993) ‘Criminology, Criminal Justice and Philosophy of Policing’ in T.N. Tamuno, I.L. Bashir, E.E.O. Alemika and A.O. Akano, Policing Nigeria: Past, Present and Future, Lagos: Malthouse Press Ltd.

Aniche E.T, ‘Community Policing in the Traditional Igbo Society: A Model for Preventing Crime in the Contemporary Nigerian Society’ Online at http://www.academia.edu/19912033/Community_Policing_in_the_Traditional_Igbo_Society_A_Model_for_Preventing_Crime_in_the_Contemporary_Nigerian_Society

Arase, S.E, (2013), Non-State Policing and Internal Security: An Implementation Strategy, in S.E. Arase (ed), ‘National Security: Intelligence and Community Partnership Approach’, LawLords Publications, Abuja

Chan, B.L.J., (1997) Changing Police Culture: Policing in Multicultural Society, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Human Rights Watch, ‘Rest in Pieces’: Police Torture and Deaths in Custody in Nigeria’, Vol. 17, No. 11(A), July, 2005 http://hrw.org/reports/2005/nigeria0705/nigeria0705.pdf

Innocent Chukwuma, “Police Transformation in Nigeria: Problems and Prospects,” paper presented at conference on Crime and Policing in Transitional Societies, Konrad Adenaeur Stiftung, in conjunction with the South African Institute for International Affairs, University of Witswatersrand, Johannesburg, September 2000.

Ollorwi O., (2013), ‘Community Policing & Crime Control in Pre-Colonial Eleme: Issues and Perspectives’, Nigerian Institute of Security: Port Harcourt (online at http://www.ollorwi.com.ng/2013/07/community-policing-crime-control-in-pre.html)

Pam Sha, D. (2005). Evaluation of Community Policing Forum Project Implemented by CLEEN Foundation. Department of Political Science, University of Jos Plateau State –Nigeria.

President’s Task Force on 21st Century Policing (2015), Final Report of the President’s Task Force on 21st Century Policing, Washington, DC: Office of Community Oriented Policing Services.

Reiner, R. (2000) The Politics of The Police, Oxford: Oxford University Press

Sir Robert Peel’s Principles of Law Enforcement 1829 – http://www.impsec.org/~jhardin/gunstuff/writings/Peels_Principles_Of_Law_Enforcement.pdf

Tamuno, T. N.  (1970) The Police in Modern Nigeria:  1861-1965.  Ibadan:  Ibadan University Press

[1] Sir Robert Peel’s Principles of Law Enforcement 1829 – http://www.impsec.org/~jhardin/gunstuff/writings/Peels_Principles_Of_Law_Enforcement.pdf

 

[2] President’s Task Force on 21st Century Policing (2015), Final Report of the President’s Task Force on 21st Century Policing, Washington, DC: Office of Community Oriented Policing Services.

[3] Pam Sha, D. (2005). Evaluation of Community Policing Forum Project Implemented by CLEEN Foundation. Department of Political Science, University of Jos Plateau State –Nigeria.

 

[4] Human Rights Watch, ‘Rest in Pieces’: Police Torture and Deaths in Custody in Nigeria’, Vol. 17, No. 11(A), July, 2005 http://hrw.org/reports/2005/nigeria0705/nigeria0705.pdf

 

[5] Ollorwi O., (2013), ‘Community Policing & Crime Control in Pre-Colonial Eleme: Issues and Perspectives’, Nigerian Institute of Security: Port Harcourt (online at http://www.ollorwi.com.ng/2013/07/community-policing-crime-control-in-pre.html)

 

 

[6]http://www.academia.edu/19912033/Community_Policing_in_the_Traditional_Igbo_Society_A_Model_for_Preventing_Crime_in_the_Contemporary_Nigerian_Society

 

[7] Arase, S.E, (2013), Non-State Policing and Internal Security: An Implementation Strategy, in S.E. Arase (ed),  ‘National Security: Intelligence and Community Partnership Approach’, LawLords Publications, Abuja

[8] Ibid

[9] Arase, S.E, (2013), Non-State Policing and Internal Security: An Implementation Strategy, in S.E. Arase (ed),  ‘National Security: Intelligence and Community Partnership Approach’, LawLords Publications, Abuja

[10] Ibid

[11] Arase, S.E, (2013), Non-State Policing and Internal Security: An Implementation Strategy, in S.E. Arase (ed),  ‘National Security: Intelligence and Community Partnership Approach’, LawLords Publications, Abuja

 

[12] Tamuno, T. N.  (1970) The Police in Modern Nigeria:  1861-1965.  Ibadan:  Ibadan University Press

[13] Alemika, E.E.O., (1993) ‘Criminology, Criminal Justice and Philosophy of Policing’ in T.N. Tanumo, I.L. Bashir, E.E.O. Alemika and A.O. Akano, Policing Nigeria: Past, Present and Future, Lagos: Malthouse Press Ltd.

 

[14] Innocent Chukwuma, “Police Transformation in Nigeria: Problems and Prospects,” paper presented at conference on Crime and Policing in Transitional Societies, Konrad Adenaeur Stiftung, in conjunction with the South African Institute for International Affairs, University of Witswatersrand, Johannesburg, September 2000.

 

[15] Reiner, R. (2000) The Politics of The Police, Oxford: Oxford University Press

 

[16] Chan, B.L.J., (1997) Changing Police Culture: Policing in Multicultural Society, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press